The first inhabitants came to Britain about 5000 BC. They were the small groups of the hunters. Next villagers came to Britain from Europe in the Bronze Age. They were the tribes of Celts.
In 55 BC the Romans came to Britain, they built roads and forts throughout the land; the most famous is Hadrian´s Wall, which was stand up against the invasion of Celtic tribes. It lies across England near the Scottish border. Romans brought Christianity to Britain.
In the 5th century the Germanic tribes of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes came and pushed the Celts.
One of the most important kings was William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, who defeated King Harold in the Battle of Hastings. He established a strong central government and appointed Norman nobleman to high positions. He made London the capital town and built the Tower of London. In this time the Norman and Anglo-Saxon language and customs merged.
In 1215 King John signed the Magna Charta and in the 13th century the parliamentary system developed.
Between 1338 and 1453 there was the Hundred Years’ War against France.
The War of Roses was a civil wars between the House of Lancaster (red rose) and the House of York (white rose).
The other famous sovereign was Henry VIII. He became king in 17 years. He had six wives. His three children were Mary, Elizabeth and Edward.
Marry I was the first Queen Regnant. An Act of Parliament had declared her illegitimate and removed her from the succession to the throne. She married to Spanish King Philip and when she died, her sister Elizabeth became Queen.
Elizabeth I was daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She defeated the Spanish Armada and it was founded the first English colony in North America, called it Virginia in honour of the Queen. And also whole period of her reign was named after her.
In 1603 the Scottish King James VI became King James I of England and both countries were linked.
From 1642 to 1649, there was a Civil War and Oliver Cromwell declared England a republic.
Victoria is another Queen who had the whole period of reign named after her. During her long rule she made some African and Asian regions part of her Empire. 20 years after her death, in 1921, Ireland declared independence.